Before each owner of the backyard, summer cottage or garden plots there is a question about the proper placement of the garden on his plot. The word “correct” itself implies that there are certain rules, norms or mandatory principles by which the garden should be equipped. And some general principles, of course, can be identified - but some of them. This is due to the huge variety of conditions in which the plots are located, and in addition, the personal preferences of the owners are of no small importance.
Garden beds are made in the spring, just marking the tracks. The paths between the beds should provide easy access and the ability to reach the middle of the bed by hand. As a rule, for this, the width of the walkway should be no less than 40-50 cm. The length of the beds themselves can be arbitrary, and the width should be convenient for work: so that you can easily reach with your hand a little further than the middle of the bed. This is necessary for carrying out handicrafts - sowing, weeding, and harvesting. The long beds for individual crops (like greenhouses) are better placed with the long side from north to south - this way the plants will be better lit during the day. The number of rows of plants in the beds is arbitrary.
Usually the beds make a rectangular shape. According to their device, they can be different. So, in the south they try to do level with the soil surface or even in-depth, and in the center of the country and in the north - raised. The edges of the beds are usually not limited to the frame, but when constructing narrow ridges according to Mittlayder or warm steam ridges, they arrange a skeleton of boards or flat slate, other materials.
Plot under the garden should be fertile. Vegetables were traditionally grown in rural farmsteads, where a lot of organic matter was introduced into the soil, but in modern garden plots there is a completely different situation, additional reclamation measures may be required - for example, if the groundwater is shallow, groundwater may be drained or wells Usually, beginners just need to make fertilizer in the fall:
organic (manure, humus, composts of organic waste) at the rate of 60-100 kg per 100 square meters;
mineral complex, where there is nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (azofoska, nitroammofoska, foskamid, autumn and others) - up to 5 kg per 100 sq.m.
Then you should dig the plot as deep as possible, but taking into account the thickness of the fertile layer. On poor podzolic soils, instead of deep plowing, gradual plowing is carried out with a deepening of the arable horizon by 5-7 cm per year and compost is used from any kind of organic matter. Baking powder is only needed on heavy and swimming soils. Good results are obtained by sowing perennial grasses (alfalfa, clover, sainfoin) for 2-3 years and their plowing. Instead of perennial grasses, annual grasses can be plowed as siderats. These can be barley-based or oat-based mixtures with vetch or peas. Before plowing the grass, it is necessary to grind and apply nitrogen-phosphate fertilizers at the rate of 1-2 kg per hundred. Fertilizer individual vegetable crops has its own characteristics. So, a cucumber, zucchini, late and middle cabbage make organic (manure, humus, compost), and a tomato, pepper, eggplant - only humus or well decomposed compost. Under onions and root vegetables, early cabbage make only mineral fertilizers.
There are a lot of vegetable crops, and they are very diverse in their appearance and cultivation features. The desire of the gardener to provide themselves with early vegetables leads to the need to allocate space for insulated soil. Now there are no problems in the acquisition of various greenhouses and hotbeds or materials for their independent construction. In a protected soil, heat-loving vegetables are grown in small quantities: tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, cucumber, zucchini. To obtain early greens in warm ground, lettuce, dill, parsley and other herbs are sown as seals. To meet the demand for early vegetables, usually 4-5 plants of each culture are sufficient.
The area under the warmed soil is usually not more than 100 sq.m. But in areas with cool summers it is difficult to grow warm-loving vegetables in the open field, and they are grown only under shelters. In this case, greenhouses are needed, and their area will already be higher - up to 300 square meters and even more. Of course, it is better to grow crops not related separately, for example: a cucumber with a zucchini in one building, and tomatoes, pepper and eggplant - in another. But if the plants are few, then it is difficult to implement, and not too necessary.
We begin with a question that certainly arises when planning: where to place a garden on the site, how much of the total area should be allocated for it. After the simplest calculation of the need for vegetables (see the first lesson), it usually turns out that it is enough to allocate an area of about 3 acres for the garden. More or less will depend on the composition of the family and the desire to experiment with any cultures. Under the garden emit the most sunny place, without shading from the south side. In contrast to the garden, which is located on the northern slope, it is the southern exposure that is preferable to the vegetable garden. This is if the garden is only a garden. The garden plot has certain requirements:
under the vegetables make higher doses of fertilizers (both organic and mineral);
provide good air permeability to soils, for which they make baking powder in the form of straw cutting, straw manure, river coarse sand;
create optimal conditions for moistening, remove excess water through drainage or arrange for watering with insufficient moistening;
protect the site from the prevailing winds, planting ornamental or fruit trees on the windward side, but so that there is no shading - all vegetables are light-requiring.
Sometimes gardeners divide the total area into several plots according to this principle: the main crops with a large area of planting are isolated in one array, and green and spicy-aromatic are placed closer to the path and structure, so that you can easily cut a bunch of parsley or dill without running all over cottage or garden plot. Recently it has become fashionable to arrange a decorative garden. Here, vegetable crops also perform design functions, so they are already selected for decorative qualities. But it is still exotic. If the topic of an ornamental garden is interesting to you - read the articles on the principles of its organization from the list of recommended literature for the lesson. It is undesirable to plant vegetables between the rows of the garden, where there is shading, competition for water and nutrients, there is a danger of contamination of products with poisons used to protect the garden. Yes, and vegetables work out better in open areas.
The seeds of white cabbage of early varieties are sown from March 5 to 10, the seeds of late varieties from March 15 to 30, the seeds of middle-ripening seeds - on April 15-20. The soil mixture for seedlings is prepared by mixing in equal quantities turf ground, peat and sand. Sod land is better to take from places of growth of perennial plants. On a bucket of soil mix add 1 tbsp. spoon of superphosphate, 2 tbsp. spoons of wood ash and 1 tbsp. A spoonful of chalk or lime - fluff. The finished soil mixture is filled in boxes for seedlings, carefully leveled and watered with potassium permanganate solution. In the ground make grooves for seeds 1 cm deep at a distance of 3 cm from one another. Seeds are sown in these grooves 1 cm apart and covered with the same soil mixture. Water through a strainer with a small amount of warm water.
Boxes with seedlings placed on the windowsill, a day later the soil is sprinkled with water. At a temperature of 18-20 degrees shoots appear for 5-7 days. After the emergence of seedlings, it will be correct to move the box with the seedlings to a room whose temperature does not exceed 7-8 degrees. If this is not done, the seedlings will quickly stretch and then die. After about 10 days, the seedlings are picked. Before picking the plants watered with a solution of potassium permanganate. Seedlings dive into pots or cups 6x6 cm in size, filled with the same soil mixture. When sowing, each seedling goes deeper into the soil to the cotyledon leaves. Pots with pickled seedlings are kept at a temperature of 17-18 degrees. When the seedlings take root, in 4-5 days the temperature is reduced to 12–14 degrees during the day and at night to 10–12 degrees. Water the seedlings as the soil dries out, the temperature of the water for irrigation is 18-20 degrees. The room is regularly ventilated.
Preparing the soil The easiest way is to buy ready-made land in a garden shop. But often, driving to an advertisement about nutrition and sterility, gardeners acquire soil of incomprehensible composition, in most cases it is sour peat, which is not suitable for seedlings. Experts - agronomists do not advise using store mixes in their pure form, the composition of fertilizers indicated on the packets can actually exceed it at times and be detrimental to plants. It is better to mix the finished soil with garden soil. Just take anyhow - what kind of garden land is also not an option. It remains to learn how to prepare a complex mixture of themselves. The classic composition of quality soil for tomato seedlings looks like this: two parts of garden soil, one part of compost, one part of peat or purchased soil, one part of sand. Peat must first be neutralized with ash, it is still desirable to add complex fertilizer (40-50g per mixture bucket). Seed preparation for sowing Pre-sowing seed treatment affects yield. Do not be lazy and spending on it a day or two, you can get an increase of 20-40%. Very important developments in this area were made by Professor A.V. Alpatiev. The famous tomato breeder has never sown dry seeds. Sowing wet seeds gives rapid development of seedlings. But this is not the most important secret. If you harden the soaked seeds, the crop will increase by another 10%. First, you should soak the seeds for a day in water, then keep in the fridge for 60 hours. The temperature in the refrigerator should be 3-5 degrees. After this-day at room temperature. But this is not all hidden opportunities. If after the fridge these days the seeds are spent in the fertilizer solution, then the yield will increase by 17-35% depending on the variety. The scientific explanation for the increase is that: from the processing, the structure of the seeds changes, and the fruits become larger. Nutrient solution according to the recipe of Professor A.V. Alpatyev is rather complicated in composition. But the same result will be if you prepare a simpler mixture - copper sulfate and boric acid are added to 10 liters, each substance is 2 g. After cold processing, the seeds are kept for half an hour in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, washed and then for two days in a nutrient solution. . After you can sow the soil, as well as the seeds should be wet, but not wet. The embedding depth is 1-2 cm. The seeds do not sit in the ground for a long time, the first shoots will appear within a week. Read more about planting tomato seeds here. It is important to create optimal conditions for growth, which is not easy to do in a city apartment. If the plants are provided with good illumination (lighting up with fluorescent lamps 14-15 hours a day), optimal humidity, both soil and air, space for growth and, if necessary, additional feeding, then you will end up with high-quality seedlings. As soon as two true leaves grow, tomatoes can swoop down. Before transplanting, they are well watered and carefully rolled over with a lump of earth on the roots - so they will take root better. 10 days before planting at a permanent place, the plants begin to harden. In the afternoon they are left for 2-3 hours in the open air. Planted in the ground when the upper layer warms to 14 degrees. Stocky plants do not need much burial. If it so happens that by this moment they are stretched, they are placed with their heads to the north and so that 1/4 of the stem along with the roots are in the ground. After tomatoes necessarily plentifully watered.
Sowing cucumbers with seeds right in the garden is no different from sowing any other crop, only you need to choose the right time and, if the heat lingers, prepare covering materials. On the beds prepared in advance by the corner of the chopper or by any other convenient object, grooves are carried out according to the chosen scheme. The most commonly used belt landing. In this case, when sowing early varieties, 30–50 cm is left between the rows; for the rest, 40–60 cm. The grooves are well watered with water from a watering can without a sieve and after it is absorbed, the prepared cucumber seeds are laid out. How far? But how not sorry: in the end, extra plants will have to be removed, leaving the strongest at distances of 15-30 cm from each other. Seeds are sprinkled with soil taken from the side of the groove, or with humus, in a layer of 2–3 cm. To preserve moisture and heat, cover them with plastic wrap (immediately after germination, the film must be replaced with spunbond).